CH 19 - Study Questions (with Answers)


1)Compare and contrast the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary.

2)Explain the organization and function of the United Nations.
The function of the United Nations is to provide common ground for nations to discuss issues, pass regulations and sanctions, and act to aid nations. They can pass international laws, pass sanctions demanding certain actions from countries, and send aid and/or protection to countries who are in need.

3)Contrast the roles of the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense in national security policymaking.

4)Explain the principle of the containment doctrine. The containment doctrine is defined as a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully. The U.S. throughout history has tried to contain the spread of Communism. By impeding the spread of Communism into vulnerable countries, the U.S. attempted to promote the interests of Democracy on a world-wide level.

5)What was the policy of detente, and how did it differ from the policy of containment?
Detente was the period when the United States attempted to ease tensions between the nations; this period included summit meetings and treaties. Detente differs from containment because containment was characterized by fighting the spread of communism. Detente did not stop communism in the eastern hemisphere, but controlled it to avoid problems in the United States.

6)What was the Strategic Defense Initiative, and why did it fail?

7)Compare and contrast the major issues in foreign policy during the Cold War era, and the United States' policies for dealing with these issues with the major issues and strategies of the post-Cold War era. What key differences must be acknowledged in developing contemporary foreign policy?

8)How is American foreign policy made, and who makes it?

9)Describe the role of the State Department in national security policymaking, and how it is organized. Why do some presidents bypass the department and rely on others for advice and action on foreign policy? Is this appropriate? Explain.

10)Describe the containment doctrine pursued by the United States during the Cold War, where it led us, its cost, and its effect on American society. In retrospect, what were the strengths and weaknesses of the policy? Explain.

11)Trace the history of American political philosophy in relation to foreign policy after World War II. What were the characteristics of the Cold War? How did presidential administrations differ in their handling of the Cold War?

12)Explain the events leading up to the end of the Cold War. How have relations between the former Soviet Union and the United States changed? Speculate on what new issues will arise on the international scene.

13)Describe the rise of detente in the 1970s, and why President Ronald Reagan initiated a different policy when he took office. How do conservatives and liberals differ on interpreting the legacy of Reagan's policies toward the Soviet Union? What do you think? Explain.

14)Describe how much the basic features of national security policy have changed since 9/11/01, and how much they have stayed the same. Why or why not have such changes occurred?

15)What is the structure of national defense in America in terms of budgets, people, and equipment?

16)How does the term interdependency explain the nature of the international economy? What are the major features of American international economic policy?

17)Does democracy really have anything to do with international relations and the foreign policy of the United States? In what ways has foreign and defense policymaking affected the scope of the American government?

18)Compare and contrast treaties and executive agreements.

19)Discuss the War Powers Act.
The War Powers Act was passed in 1973. Congressed passed this act to prevent future interventions overseas without certain congressional approval. However, under the act, the president can deploy troops overseas for a 60 day period. If Congress gives the president explicit approval, the troops may stay there for yet another 60 days. But, without approval, the president must withdraw the troops in 30 days. With the act, troops may be engaged if the president is reponding to an emergency situation that is endangering the American public. Prolonged strife must be approved by Congress.

20)How did the Framers view foreign policy?

21)What impact can the media have on foreign policy?

22)Choose two checks on presidential powers in foreign and military policies and discuss them.

23)Discuss two major historical events with foreign policy significance and discuss how they changed American policy.

24)What impact did September 11, 2001 have on U.S. foreign policy?

25)Discuss how the Bush Doctrine of preemption is a radical change in U.S. foreign policy.

26)Discuss the early years of American foreign policy with special attention to the choices made by the United States.

27)Explain the evolution of United States' involvement in foreign affairs from the Framers' vision to post-WW II superpower status.

28)Discuss the origins of the Cold War and the policies of containment and alliance followed by the United States during that period.

29)Explain the institutions of modern foreign policy making. What are they, how do they work, and how/why were they formed?